Novus Research Products, Services and Information

Ingredients in Brain Lightning™

 Serving of 3 Capsules provides:   

Synergistic Blend of Brain Nutrients   Major Components in Detail and Abstracts   Vitamin and Mineral Synergistic Support

Proprietary Synergistic Blend of Brain Nutrients
found together
only in Brain Lightning™: A Quick Review  

1475 mg


  DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol)  Reduction of anxiety and hyperactivity, precursor to Acetylcholine, increase in intellectual capacity, learning ability, sensory functions, reduction of hyperactivity and anxiety, mood stabilization, increases short and long-term memory functions, and more.

See function


  PREGNENOLONE  Cumulative anti-stress, anti-aging and anti-fatigue effects for the brain. Improves spatial memory, verbal recall, precursor to all steroid hormones, lowers excessive GABA activity, promotes body de-toxification processes, and more.  Synthetic - not animal-derived.

See function


  TRIMETHYLGLYCINE (TMG) Lowers homocysteine levels, stops DNA replication error, functions as a precursor for the formation of SAMe, a critical factor in biochemical reactions.

See function


L-TYROSINE Prevents reduction of noropinephrine levels associated with stress, associated with a reduction in emotional depression, functions as a precursor to Thyroxine (primary thyroid hormone), as well as adrenaline and noradrenaline.

- precursor to norepinephrine and dopamine
- non-essential amino acid (since PA is converted into it first)
- has been studied as an effective aid to cocaine withdrawal
- do not use L-phenylalanine or L-tyrosine if you are using MAO inhibitors for depression (it can cause a major elevation in blood pressure).

See function


  HUPERZINE A  (pure molecular alkaloid) Protects brain cells against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, inhibits ACHe (see this also), and lowers liver toxicity. Huperzine A actually promotes the growth of nerve dendrites!

March 15, 1999:  US Army Medical Research and Material Command  awarded B. P. Doctor (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research) and Dr. A. P. Kozikowski a grant of $900,000  to explore the ability of huperzine and its analogs to block cell death... this may be important to slowing the decline of memory with aging, in particular, in Alzheimer's patients. Kozikowski also invented synthetic huperzine.  (not used in Brain Lightning™). See also this comparison of natural huperzine vs. synthetic huperzine. Many huperzine products on the market are either synthetic or 1% titrated dulutions of the original molecular solution.

See function


  VINPOCETINE  Increases cerebral blood flow, increases production of ATP for cellular energy, increases use of oxygen and glucose in brain cells, raises serotonin level in the brain and neural information processing rate, dramatic increase in memory functions. Also see abstracts

Note: Because Brain Lightning™ is a specialized synergistic formula, it recognizes that ATP is produced through a further synergy of the Krebs Cycle and the glycolitic cycle, which further requires the presence of the same string of B-Vitamins, Magnesium and Manganese also contained in Brain Lightning™.

The vinca plant (periwinkle) is a source of vinpocetine which in Europe is a drug used to treat strokes, but in the United States is a dietary supplement. A recent study comparing vinpocetine with two neuroprotective drugs and a water-soluble synthetic derivative of vitamin E (Trolox) found vinpocetine to be the superior antioxidant among the drugs. In a soon-to-be-published study, one of the same drugs, Piracetam, and vinpocetine were both shown to resurrect the function and viability of nerve cells in culture that had been deprived of oxygen for 24 hours.

These conditions of reduced blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain mimic that of a stroke. A study from 2001 evaluated the effectiveness of a Ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine combination on cognitive performance in normal, healthy adults. Subjects from 22 to 59 years of age took a supplement containing 120 mg of a standardized ginkgo extract and 30 mg of vinpocetine (along with B vitamins and DMAE) for 14 days. After the supplementation period, memory speed and accuracy improved significantly. This study suggests that this vinpocetine-containing formulation can boost brain function over the short term.

See function


  D,L, PHENYLALANINE (DLPA)  Blocks breakdown of enkephalins, aids in depression, precursor for Tyrosine, promotes mental alertness, elevates mood, and more. (Not for those who are PKU Sensitive)

- combination of synthetic (D) and natural (L) phenylalanine
- produces endorphins and stimulates their use
- thus, effective painkiller, often better than the opiate derivatives.
- nonaddictive, nontoxic
- reverse-tolerance effect (pain relief gets better)
- strong anti-depressant effect
- can be combined with other pain-killers with few bad interactions
- converted into tyrosine which is precursor to noradrenaline (NE) and dopamine
- like all amino acids best taken on empty stomach since it competes
with proteins to cross the blood brain barrier.
- requires vitamins C and B-6 for the conversion to NE.
- phenylalanine also stimulates the release of cholecystokinin, which is the body's own appetite-suppressant,
- can increase sexual interest
- improves memory and mental alertness
- antidepressant
- do not use L-phenylalanine or L-tyrosine if you are
using MAO inhibitors for depression (it can cause a
major elevation in blood pressure).

See function


  GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) Aids in production of relaxed mental state, prevents neural overload conditions. Balanced by Pregnenolone, which blocks excessive GABA activity.

See function


  GINGKO BILOBA Improves blood flow to the brain and subsequent oxygenation of brain cells, promotion of cellular metabolism, increases cellular glucose utilization, and more.  

See function



Vitamin and Mineral Synergistic Support 
(works with Proprietary Blend of Brain Nutrients)



 Selenium (as Organic Selenomethionine) Important for Thyroid function. Anti-oxidant. Prevents breakdown of Vitamin E.   Amino Acid Chelate form replaced with even more effective Organic Selenomethionine (July 2001) Selenomethionine is a natural mineral that acts as a catalyst to speed up and intensify the action of primary anti-oxidants (Vitamins A, C, & E). It is a component of Glutathione and does not exist in sufficient quantities in our daily diets. Selenium is a trace mineral used by the body to form one of its most important antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase. This enzyme is most active in the liver. Glutathione peroxidase concentrates in the heart muscle and skeletal muscles. This enzyme helps destroy the peroxide radical before it can attack the cellular membrane which surrounds and protects the cell. Selenium is also believed to enhance the effectiveness of Vitamin E, another antioxidant nutrient. Selenium, bound to the amino acid methionine as L-selenomethionine, can be incorporated into tissue proteins without further metabolic change.



  Magnesium Silicate, Calcium Carbonate, Silicon Dioxide, Cellulose  (non-reactive mixing agents)



Vitamin E, natural, (d-alpha tocopherol)   Essential for neural memory functions. See link . The natural Vitamin E may also play a role in delaying Alzheimers. See link. Anti-oxidant functions.

100 IU


B Vitamins are essential nutrients for mental health, with deficiencies potentially manifesting as psychosis and cognitive impairment.3 The psychotic personality disorder known as Korsakoff's syndrome, for example, is a consequence of thiamin (vitamin B1) deficiency. Niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency is associated with delirium, dementia, and memory deficits. Vitamin B6 helps transform amino acids into monoamines, an important group of neurotransmitters. Hormone replacement therapy and birth control pills deplete vitamin B6, and many hormone-induced mental or emotional disturbances may be improved with B6 supplementation. Abnormally low levels of vitamin B12 are associated with Alzheimer's disease.

 Vitamin B-1 ( Thiamin) Promotes health in nerve cells, the brain and the heart by promoting neural metabolism processes. See this very good article on the effect of B Vitamins here.   More here

25 mg


 Vitamin B-5  (Pantothenic Acid) Promotes synthesis of hormones and neurotransmitters.
More on B-5 and the Brain : 
The Necessity of Vitamin B-5  and Anti-Aging of the Brain Tissue



 Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine 5- Phosphate) Enhances utilization of  Phenylaline and GABA components. Additional data on Vitamin B-6  here   Deficiency may cause depression.

Vitamin B-6 Supplementation Helpful With Autistic Children 6/6/02



Vitamin B-12 (as Methylcobalamine) Promotes nervous system function and DNA synthesis. More information on B-12 here.   Deficiency may cause depression.  Cyanocobalamin replaced with even more bioeffective Methylcobalamine. (July 2001) The Methyl form is the only form immediately
usable by the central nervous system. 
  Try and find the methyl form in any other product! 



  Magnesium  Reduces neuromotor impairment and deficit. Anti-aging capabilties. See link. Aids in the transmission of nerve impulses.



 Vitamin B-3 (Niacin, non-flushing, as niacinamide) Enhances utlization of GABA. Reduces plasma fibrinogen and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.  More on B-3 here



  Zinc  (as Amino Acid Chelate) Essential for maintaining ionic channels and cognitive function.  The presence of Zinc aids in the production of over 300 enzymes, many of them in the brain.



  Manganese (as Manganese Chelate) Trace needed for brain and nerve function, and necessary for  the absorption of Vitamin B-1 and Vitamin E.




Major Components in Detail 

 G I N G K O  B I L O B A

The primary causes of mental deficiencies is poor blood flow to the brain or "cerebral vascular insufficiencies." An answer to this problem may come from a plant which has been used for medicinal purposes since 2800 B.C. It is found in the oldest Chinese books on herbal medicine, known as materia medicas. The plant may provide the most important medicinal plant extract available as we enter a new millennium-nearly 5000 years later. The plant is Ginko biloba.  Ginkgo works in a number of important ways to assist the brain. The effect of the plant on cerebral vascular insufficiency has been widely studied. An analysis of forty of the scientific articles reporting on this subject noted ginkgo's clear value in treating the "symptoms of aging" in the elderly. The studies looked at an extract of ginkgo which was standardized for the level of Ginkgo flavonglycosides.  The  active principles of Ginkgo extract are believed to have a regulating effect on the entire vascular system of veins, arteries and capillaries. Ginkgo extract may inhibit "Platelet activating factor" (PAF) and promote the metabolism of cerebral and neurosensorial cells. The most common usage of Gingko Biloba is for its widely accepted effects in the regulation of blood flow to the brain, legs and other extremities. It is also thought Gingko Biloba may act to counteract a number of conditions such as vascular insufficiency or tinnitus. Gingko Biloba has also been indicated in the treatment of intermittent claudication (pain while walking).  Ginkgo not only assists the brain by increasing its supply of blood and oxygen, but also this plant has been shown to increase ability of brain cells to make use of glucose. Energy production is improved. Nerve signal transmissions are improved. Brain wave tracings are improved.  Diverse population grouping have been shown to benefit from administration of ginkgo. The memory of college students as well as the elderly have shown improvement. Ginkgo facilitates short-term memory by increasing the speed of nerve impulses. In recent years, this plant has reached a highly valued status in Europe. In France, 1.5 percent of all prescription sales are for ginkgo leaf extract. The figure is 1 percent in Germany. In both of these countries, the extracts of the ginkgo leaf are among the leading prescription medicines. Worldwide, some 10 million prescriptions for the extract this plant leaf were written in 1989; roughly 100,000 physicians prescribe ginkgo as a regular part of their practices.


  D M A E

DMAE(dimethylaminoethanol) is naturally present in small amounts in the human brain, and is found naturally in some foods, like anchovies and sardines. It is a precursor (building block) to Acetylcholine, a major brain neurotransmitter, which of course readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Research indicates that supplementary DMAE promotes neurological processes which result in increased intellectual capacity, increased learning capability, increased short and long-term memory capability, promotes concentration, focus and alertness, and improves general sensory capabilities (vision, hearing, etc.). DMAE also contributes to the reduction of anxiety and hyperactivity, and contributes to stable behavior and mood. DMAE is part of the "choline cycle", which allows cells to convert certain specific biochemicals into each other as needed. One of the key roles for choline is as the rate-limiting factor in the production of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is one of the dozen or so major neurotransmitters which allow brain and nerve cells to communicate with each other. Acetylcholine-using neurons are especially important in: (1) cognitive (intellectual) function; (2) memory formation and emotional modulation; and (3) the reticular-activating system (RAS). The RAS is a group of nerve clusters which sits at the top of the spinal cord and acts as a "traffic controller". The RAS determines what stimuli from the senses will be allowed to reach conscious attention, as well as what thoughts and feelings will be allowed to initiate corresponding bodily movements. It is partly due to the RAS that a passing angry thought or feeling doesn't automatically and instantaneously trigger violent behavior toward the object of our anger. It is the intensity of signals (mediated by DMAE- derived acetylcholine) from the RAS to the hippocampus and cerebral cortex which determines the intensity and duration of sustained mental focus and attention - the very issue at the root of genuine attention deficit disorder. Thus DMAE, by being the most effective precursor for brain/RAS acetylcholine, literally increases attention span, mental focus, and ability to screen out distracting and extraneous stimuli (both from the environment as well as from within). An acetylcholine-deficient RAS will have a difficult time maintaining a high level of focus, attention, alertness and arousal. DMAE is the most effective acetylcholine precursor for several reasons. Choline salts (e.g. choline bitartrate, choline chloride, choline citrate) are frequently broken down by bacteria living in our gut.  DMAE does not suffer this fate. What choline is absorbed into the bloodstream has a poor ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.  The blood-brain barrier is a two-part barrier which prevents toxins from entering the brain and also prevents disruptions of brain function due to surges in the blood of various nutrients, even those essential for optimum brain function.  Unlike choline, DMAE passes easily through the blood-brain barrier. Because of this fact, DMAE has been shown to be effective at doses as low as 10-20 mg, although doses of 500-1000 mg are often needed. The unique effectiveness of DMAE is also due in part to its ability to inhibit choline oxidase, an enzyme which can divert choline away from acetylcholine production, into betaine production instead. And while a third acetylcholine precursor, phosphatidylcholine, is more effective than simple choline salts, studies have found large (and expensive) doses - 10 to 60 grams(!) - are often needed to elevate brain acetylcholine levels. Many other products on the market rely on phosphatidylcholine, which is not as effective as DMAE.


 H U P E R Z I N E  A

An amazing, safe alkaloid derived from the Chinese Club Moss, Huperzia serrata. More than 2000 clinical studies have been conducted on in China, and have demonstrated the positive effects of Huperzine A. It is currently approved for AD treatment in China. 

Huperzine occurs in two forms: Huperzine A and Huperzine B, which has far less effect than Huperzine A.

Huperzine A appears to relieve symptoms of Alzheimer's disease by blocking the depletion of acetylcholine in the brain. Huperzine A is currently under study by the US Army at Walter Reed Hospital as an antidote for nerve gas poisoning because of its protective effect on the cells of the brain. Huperzine A actually promotes the growth of nerve dendrites! Animal and cell culture studies, along with molecular structure data, suggest that Huperzine A is a potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and may also protect neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. The molecule's strong specificity for AChE suggests it may lower liver toxicity and other adverse effects. 

Huperzine A is a rare substance. Production of Huperzine costs approximately $500,000 per Kilo, because they have to gather it molecule by molecule. Brain Lightning™ uses only 100% natural molecular alkaloid Huperzine A, as opposed to some formulations on the market which may use 1% or 5% titration of the alkaloid, or even synthetic Huperzine A.

For more data, see this link. In orthodox medicine, there are two phamaceuticals used in the treatment of Alzheimers, tacrine and physostigmine, both of which unfortunately bind to receptors in the central nervous system, causing adverse effects. Also, the two orthodox drugs work on the AChE everywhere in the body instead of just in the brain, so their effect is severely limited. Huperzine A specifically targets the AChE in the brain, does much better in improving memory, does not bind to CNS receptors, and lasts more than ten times longer. Huperzine A is not known to have any toxicity at all, even at doses 100 times the therapeutic dose. Tens of thousands of people, if not more (considering China) have used Huperzine A with no evidence of toxicity anywhere in the body. Bai DL, et al. Huperzine A, a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Curr Med Chem. Mar2000;7(3):355-74.
Tang XC. Huperzine A (shuangyiping): a promising drug for Alzheimer's disease. Chung Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao. Nov1996;17(6):481-4.
Skolnick AA. Old Chinese herbal medicine used for fever yields possible new Alzheimer disease therapy. JAMA. Mar1997;277(10):776. 

More Huperzine Data


  V I N P O C E T I N E

Vinca minor BowlesVinpocetine is more technically referred to as "ethyl apovincaminate." Derived from the periwinkle plant, Vinpocetine, a derivative of Vincamine,  increases cerebral blood flow, increases the rate at which brain cells produce Adenosine TriPhosphate (ATP), creating more cellular energy, and increases the use of oxygen and glucose, feeding the brain cells. It also has the unusual effect of raising the level of serotonin in the brain, increasing the general brain information processing rate. It is commonly cited as an aid to improving memory. Literature suggests Vinpocetine may act to improve conditions related to insufficient blood flow to the brain including vertigo and Meniere's syndrome, difficulty in sleeping, mood changes and depression. Vinpocetine may also alleviate speech impairment, improve short-term memory, hearing, assist in the condition of multiple infarct dementia, increase resistance of neurons to lack of oxygen. Several brain boosters (ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, phosphatidylserine, to name just a few) are known to help restore failing memory, but Vinpocetine dramatically enhances memory even in healthy individuals. It also acts as a potent neuroprotective supplement.  Strong clinical evidence exists that, in addition to its brain boosting properties, Vinpocetine’s ability to improve blood flow also helps protect brain and heart function, prevents macular degeneration (a leading cause of blindness in the elderly), and improves hearing and inner ear problems, and even lessens depression and fatigue. 

Vinpocetine is used in more than 35 countries and is widely supported by clinical research (over 100 clinical trials, involving over 30,000 patients, have been published.) 


  P R E G N E N O L O N E

PREGNENOLONE is a precursor for all other steroid hormones naturally present in the body. It is converted directly into DHEA, which in turn converts to testosterone, estrogens, cortisol and aldosterone. It is this same set of successive conversions that makes human life possible. Without the presence of Pregnenolone, there can be no human steroid production.  Research into Pregnenolone with factory workers and pilots began in the 1940's, and the evidence rapidly materialized that Pregnenoline had energizing and cumulative anti-stress, anti-fatigue and anti-depression effects, especially after it was taken after a period of two weeks. Studies at St. Louis School of Medicine showed the memory enhancement effects of pregnenolone, with improvement in spatial memory, perception and verbal recall. There is considerable evidence that pregnenolone modulates both NMDA and GABA receptors systems in the brain (which are involved in learning, memory and alertness and decrease with age). Pregnenoline enhances NMDA receptor function and lowers excessive GABA activity and seems to be a natural anti-depressant.   During research conducted in the 1940's, it was found pregnenolone use resulted in a reduction in joint pain - it was used as a treatment for arthritis, but it was replaced by Cortisone in the 1950's.   The body produces a steroid called cortisol, the levels of which increase with age, causing a number of problems. Pregnenolone counteracts the negative effects of accumulating cortisol levels in the body, including the enhancement of memory areas in the brain damaged by cortisol.   One of the major determinants of the body's ability to detoxify poisonous chemicals is the health and effectiveness of the Cytochrome P450 enzyme system in the liver. Pregnenolone increases the overall P450 detox enzyme power of the liver by promoting conservation of the existing enzymes, promoting body detoxification processes. Works with TMG, detailed below.   See a good article here.


 T R I M E T H Y L G L Y C I N E

 TRIMETHYLGLYCINE  is what is called a methylation agent, composed of three methyl groups attached to one molecule of the amino acid glycine. It produces unique biological effects including lowering general homocysteine levels in the blood. Homecysteine is  thought to contribute toward strokes and cardiovascular disease. TMG also contributes one of its methyl groups to DNA, potentially reducing DNA aging and errant DNA replication processes. In order for TMG to be effective in the body, it needs to have the synergistic co-factor of Vitamin B12, which is also included in the Brain Lightning™ formulation. Trimethylglycine also produces other compounds in the body, such as SAMe (S- Adenosylmethionine.  SAMe is an active lipotrope form of Methionine, and is a cofactor in a number of critical biochemical reactions and is found in almost every tissue of the body. SAMe has been used in clinical studies to treat depression, schizophrenia, demyelination diseases, liver disease, dementia, arthritis, peripheral neuropthy and other conditions. Several studies have confirmed that SAMe is up to15% more effective in the treatment of depression than traditional pharmaceutical anti-depressants. SAMe improves and normalizes liver function. SAMe is used in Europe in the treatment of cirrhosis and damage caused by alcohol. SAMe is essential for the production of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant that protects the body from the damaging effects of free radicals. SAMe reduces the number of trigger points, reduces fatigue, reduces morning stiffness,and improves mood in fibromyalgia patients. SAMe improves the binding of neurotransmitters to their receptors sites in the brain. SAMe is essential for the regeneration of neuron axons following injury. SAMe is also essential for the formation of myelin sheaths that surround axons. In tests SAMe has shown great promise in the treatment of Peripheral Neuropathy, and HIV related peripheral Neuropathy. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s patients have very low levels of SAMe. SAMe is currently under investigation as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease.   



  L - T Y R O S I N E

Tyrosine is intimately involved with the important brain neuro- transmitters epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine. It is synthesized in the body from existing levels of phenylalanine.  Environmental stress is associated with reduced levels of norepinephrine. Tyrosine prevents reduction of norepinephrine levels that are associated with stress. Many clinical studies, along with a large body of anecdotal evidence, indicate that tyrosine may prove to be a vital substance in alleviating depression, as well as the irritating symptoms of premenstral syndrome. Tyrosine is now reportedly being used as an aid in the treatment of and withdrawal from cocaine addiction. In one study, tryptophan and tyrosine were used in conjunction with the anti-depressant imipramine to treat chronic cocaine abuse with a reported 75-80 percent success rate. Researchers at UCLA and elsewhere, have also reported favorably on regimens containing tryptophan and tyrosine for the treatment of cocaine abuse. The importance of Tyrosine is based on the fact that it is a direct precursor to Thyroxine (Triiodo tyrosine) as well as being a precursor to Adrenaline and Noradrenaline. Thyroxine is, of course, a primary Thyroid hormone. Thyroxine deficiency results in a series of conditions including excess weight gain, cold hands and feet, decreased basal metabolism, etc.The catecholamine Adrenaline and Nor Adrenaline are critical in the following conditions:  In Science magazine it was reported that Tyrosine lowers blood pressure by increasing Norepinephrine metabolites which through feedback shut down sympathetic output. In this same issue it was found that Tyrosine increased blood pressure 38% to 49% in hypotensive rats through accelerated peripheral synthesis of catecholamine. A study by  Dr. I. Goldberg in Lancet revealed that catecholamine also controls immune system output. Allergy sufferers have responded well to Tyrosine.  In the American Journal of Psychiatry, Dr. Alan J. Gelenberg postulated that a lack of available tyrosine results in a deficiency of   nor adrenaline at a specific brain location, which in turn relates to mood problems such as depression. 


 D L - P H E N Y L A L A N I N E ( D L P A )

Most amino acids, with the exception of glycine, can appear in two forms called the D- and L- forms. Each form is a reversed mirror image of the other. Amino acids in the L- form are the natural form of amino acids found in living plant and animal tissues, and are considered to be more compatible to human biochemistry than the D- forms, with the exception of D-phenylalanine, which is beneficial. All amino acids used in human protein structures are of the L- form, with the exception of phenylalanine, which can also appear as DL-phenylalanine. Phenylalanine comes in two forms which are mirror images of each other: L-phenylalanine which has a nutritional value, and D-phenylalanine which has painkilling and depression alleviating properties which are attributed to its ability to block the breakdown of enkephalins, the brains natural pain killers. A third form, DL-phenylalanine, is a 50/50 mixture of these two forms. Phenylalanine activity is enhanced by additional Vitamin B6, especially in studies on depression. Vitamin B6 is, of course, included in Brain Lightning™. 

Phenylalanine deficiency can cause bloodshot eyes, cataracts and behavioral changes. It is one of the amino acids which the body cannot manufacture itself, but must acquire from food. It is abundant in meats and cheese. Phenylalanine is a precursor of tyrosine, and together they lead to the formation of thyroxine or thyroid hormone, and of epinephrine and norepinephrine which is converted into a neurotransmitter used by the brain to manufacture norepinephrine which promotes mental alertness, memory, elevates mood, and suppresses the appetite very effectively.



 G A B A

GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid), is an important amino acid which functions as the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA’s high concentration in the hypothalamus suggests this amino acid plays a significant role in hypothalamic-pituitary function. The hypothalamus is a region of the posterior section of the brain and is the regulating center for visceral (instinctive) functions such as sleep cycles, body temperature, and the activity of the pituitary gland. Supplemental GABA can be useful in producing a state of relaxation. GABA works in partnership with a derivative of Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine - included in Brain Lightning™), to cross from the axons to the dendrites through the synaptic cleft, in response to an electrical signal in the neuron and inhibits message transmission. This helps control the nerve cells from firing too fast, which would overload the system. The action of GABA decreases epileptic seizures and muscle spasms by inhibiting electrical signals in this manner. Studies have shown that the site of action in the brain of benzodiazepams, including Valium, is directly coupled to the brain receptor for GABA. GABA itself can be taken instead of a tranquilizer to calm the body without the fear of addiction. Taken with the B-vitamins niacinamide and inositol, it prevents anxiety messages from reaching the motor centers of the brain by filling its receptor site.